Along with losing your luggage and waiting through delays, one of the most unpleasant and unexpected aspects of travel is dealing with unfriendly locals. Predicting which cities have the least patience for tourists has been more or less a process of travel and error...until now.
In 2015, Stratos Jets, a private air charter company, released a study on the top American states and cities that are hostile to tourists. Using Twitter, researchers compiled tourist-related tweets and used the "sentiment analysis feature" of AlchemyAPI to rate states and cities.
Their findings mostly reflect regional stereotypes: the salt-of-the-earth Midwest is the most welcoming region, the grouchy Northeast detests visitors, and the West receives newcomers tepidly as the snobs counterbalance the hippies. The study says that southern hospitality is a myth: Dixie detested tourists about as much as the Yankees.
Meanwhile, three of the states where cannabis is legalized - Colorado, Washington and Alaska - are among the most welcoming, while Oregon is neutral. (But maybe they will warm up to visitors now that retail cannabis sales are underway.)
Cities in the legal states were also among the friendliest, with Portland, Seattle and Washington, DC making the top ten tourist-loving locales. But Chicago topped the list, looming over its rivals like the city's storied Willis (née Sears) Tower.
On the flipside, the most hateful cities are headlined by Arlington (Texas), New York and Las Vegas. Of those three, Sin City is the most strange considering that tourism plays a massive role in the municipal economy. The famed Las Vegas is practically a feeding trough for local businesses.
But these findings come with a caveat: familiarity may breed contempt for tourists. The three most popular travel destinations in America (New York, Florida and California) are among the least welcoming states. So residents might dislike visitors simply because their buffer for tourists has worn thin over the years.
Meanwhile, Nevada, Maine and Vermont are among the most likely to make tourists feel less wanted: they rank highest among states who tell tourists to "leave" or "go home" on Twitter. But maybe they'll lighten up in 2016.